Russia’s Climate and Geography

Due to its vast size, it is tough to provide any general sort of information about the climate of Russia, but it is important to note that Summers are warm to hot while winter in some areas can get cold.

Due to the sheer size and compact configuration, Russia has a largely continental climate. Greater than half of the country is north of 60 degrees north latitude while little coverage of Russia is south of 50 degrees north latitude, and, due to this extensive regions experience six months of permanently frozen snow that covers subsoil up to a depth of several hundred meters.

The mean annual temperature of almost all of European Russia is below freezing including the vast Siberian-Russian province.

Russia experiences two seasons- summer and winter and a short interval of moderation between them. The Russian Far East, which is under the influence of the Pacific Ocean, has a monsoonal climate which reverses the direction of the wind in winter and summer, sharply differentiating temperatures and a narrow subtropical band of territory provide Russia well-known summer resort area on the Black Sea.

During winter high-pressure systems cause winds to blow from south-west and south in all but the Pacific region of the Russian landmass.

During summer, the low-pressure system brings winds from the north and north-west to most of the lands. This meteorological combination decreases the wintertime temperature difference between south and north.

The average January temperature in St. Petersburg is -8 degrees C and in West Siberia is -27 C and -43 C in Yakutsk while Mongolian border the winter is barely warm.

The temperature differ during summer for instance in arctic islands the temperature during winter is usually 4 C and 20 C in the south most regions while in north central Siberia (Verkhoyansk) the temperatures get as high as 38 C.

Due to little exposure to ocean influences, Russia experiences moderate amounts of precipitation. Along the Baltic coast, the annual rainfall is 600mm while in Moscow is 525mm.


The country covers an area of 17,075,200 area.sq.Km and showcases diverse landforms. The country is divided into various geographical zones.


The Volga plains extend from the western borders of Europe to the Ural Mountains.

The Siberian province is a combination of tundra, with rising plateaus, rolling hills punctuate by scattered mountain ranges.


The major mountain ranges in Russia stretches along the eastern, southwestern and southeastern borders.

Far south-west is the Caucasus Mountains which stretches across the lands and Mt. Elbrus, which is the country highest point, is located here. 18,481ft. (5,633m).

The Ural Mountains stretches from the Arctic Ocean to Kazakhstan’s northern border. The Kolyma Mountains which are found in the far northeastern extend about 1,126km (700mi) south and north to the east of the Kolyma River and parallel to the Siberian coast.

Rivers & Lakes

The country has more than 100,000 rivers with a length of 7miles or more. The most important rivers include the Dvina, Volga and Dnieper (west), the Yenisei, Ob, and Lena (central) and the Amur River in the Far East.

Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and is home to more than 1,700 species of animals and plants and two third of which are not traceable in any other part of the world.


It is characterized by grassy plains without trees and punctuate by mountain ranges and are best for human settlement.

Taiga and Tundra

It accounts for the over 60% of the country’s area and extends from the western borders then east toward the Pacific Ocean.

Tundra stretches from west to east and covers 4,349 miles (7,000km). It is a marshy and treeless plains and is well known for its nights through summer and days of total darkness through winter.

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